This introduction is actually very important to explain why we are making this article and who is supposed to read it.
This article is NOT to defend Islam because the principles and justice of Islam is its actual line of defense. The idea is that lots of people nowadays, either purposely or due to ignorance , are actually trying to disfigure the image of Islam. Some of these people are, unfortunately, Muslims.
Before we start we have to agree on some rules first:
1- Drop the prejudgment you have made on Islam before you read
Prejudgment is wise judgment's biggest enemy. To judge you have to read preparing the mind to think fresh and the heart to reset its feelings.
2- When a man does something wrong that does not mean that his religion is bad, it means that he is bad. For example I cannot put the blame for the massacres that Hitler did on Christianity or even Germany (even though he justified his deeds by seeking the glory of Germany). Similarly, you must not blame Islam for the actions of extremists who explain verses based on their very own sick vision aided strongly by their ignorance and grudge on societies.
3- Lots of issues in this article deserve (and already has) books written about them like "the Golden Era of Jewish culture" or "sources of Islamic Rulings (Shariah)". In here we only mention it in brief in the required context.
4- To imagine that anyone can present Islam in a nutshell (one article) is crazy. So this article is just to explain some misunderstood verses, not present Islam as a whole.
5- Please always keep in mind that the people who mostly paid and still are paying for the actions of these terrorists are the Islamic nations. Also notice that the actions of these sick groups is almost always directed towards the Islamic nations.
That's why before we explain anything let's first clarify some characteristics of Islam that I chose which I believe will be closely related to the explanation of the verses.