Steps of making "Jihad" obligatory

Step 1: Patience
When Prophet Mohammad, peace and blessing be upon him, started his call for Islam in Mecca, people living there started to oppose him and even hurt him. At that stage God ordered him to be patient and forgiving and strive against them using the Holy Quran as well as logical discussions.

This is apparent in verses like :
"Say, [O Muhammad], to those who have believed that they [should] forgive those who expect not the days of Allah so that He may recompense a people for what they used to earn." (45:14)

"So be patient. Indeed, the promise of Allah is truth. And let them not disquiet you who are not certain [in faith]." (30:60)

"And We have not created the heavens and earth and that between them except in truth. And indeed, the Hour is coming; so forgive with gracious forgiveness." (15:85)

"And if We had willed, We could have sent into every city a warner. So do not obey the disbelievers, and strive against them with the Qur’an a great striving." (25:51-52)

Step 2: Emigration to Medina
When the people of Mecca started harassing, humiliating, torturing and even killing Muslims, as a simple example here is the family of Amar Ibn yasser, both his parents and himself, were brutally tortured.

They were taken in the heat of the day and exposed to the heat of Mecca, They were tied to camels and dragged by camels at noon, when the sun was the hottest, on the sand. polytheists put scorching hot rocks on their bodies and burnt their bodies. However, they could not make Sumayya, Amar's mom, and her family abandon their belief.

When prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, passed by them and said, 'Patience, O family of Yasir! Your meeting-place will be Paradise.' Ammar was tortured "until he did not know what he was saying," as was his friend Suhayb. They were the first martyrs in Islam. Abu Jahl, a leader in Mecca, was so infuriated with their patience that he stuck the spear in Sumayya's thigh that reached her vagina, she died immediately.

This is apparent in verses like :
"And [remember, O Muhammad], when those who disbelieved plotted against you to restrain you or kill you or evict you [from Makkah]. But they plan, and Allah plans. And Allah is the best of planners." (8:30)

"If you do not aid the Prophet – Allah has already aided him when those who disbelieved had driven him out [of Makkah] as one of two, when they were in the cave and he said to his companion, "Do not grieve; indeed Allah is with us." And Allah sent down his tranquility upon him and supported him with angels you did not see and made the word of those who disbelieved the lowest, while the word of Allah – that is the highest. And Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise." (9:40)

Step 3: Permission to fight back
Muslims in this stage were given permission to fight back against those who prosecuted, tortured and killed them. This war was allowed as a self defense mechanism as the disbelievers were still doing their utmost to fight Muslims and were trying to encourage the other tribes to harass or fight the Muslims.

This is apparent in verses like :
"Permission [to fight] has been given to those who are being fought, because they were wronged. And indeed, Allah is competent to give them victory. [They are] those who have been evicted from their homes without right – only because they say, “Our Lord is Allah.” And were it not that Allah checks the people, some by means of others, there would have been demolished monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques in which the name of Allah is much mentioned. And Allah will surely support those who support Him. Indeed, Allah is Powerful and Exalted in Might." (22:39-40)

"Say, [O Muhammad], "Do you argue with us about Allah while He is our Lord and your Lord? For us are our deeds, and for you are your deeds. And we are sincere [in deed and intention] to Him." (2:139)

"Fight in the way of Allah those who fight you but do not transgress. Indeed. Allah does not like transgressors." (2:190)

Step 4: Permission to fight to protect religious freedom of the oppressed
A fight against anyone, Arabs or not, who oppresses people to a certain belief. This war is permitted to guarantee freedom of choice of religion not to enforce Islam on people. This is apparent in history. NEVER had Muslims role a country and force its' people to embrace Islam. Egypt is an example here.

In Egypt there were Muslims, Christians and disbelievers. No one was ever forced to embrace Islam. This contradicted what the Romans for example did in Egypt, where they prosecuted, tortured and killed Christians for years. Muslims, When Omar Ibn Elkhattab, may Allah be pleased with him, became the Caliph (President of the Islamic state), he sent an army led by Amr Ibn Alaas, may Allah be pleased with him, to fight the Romans in Egypt to free Egyptians from their opressor.

This is apparent in verses like :
"Indeed, the number of months with Allah is twelve [lunar] months in the register of Allah [from] the day He created the heavens and the earth; of these, four are sacred. That is the correct religion, so do not wrong yourselves during them. And fight against the disbelievers collectively as they fight against you collectively. And know that Allah is with the righteous [who fear Him]." (9:36)

When did Jihad become obligatory
The second year of emigration to Medina as seen in the verse: "Fighting has been enjoined upon you while it is hateful to you. But perhaps you hate a thing and it is good for you; and perhaps you love a thing and it is bad for you. And Allah Knows, while you know not." (2:216)